Need of Vocational Education
বৃত্তিমূলক শিক্ষার প্রয়োজনীয়তা
Need of Vocational Education:
Vocational Education and Training (VET) prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology. Vocational education may be classified as teaching procedural knowledge. This can be contrasted with declarative knowledge as used in education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education.
Category of Vocational Education:
Vocational education may be at the secondary or post-secondary level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. Increasingly, vocational education can be organized in terms of recognition of prior learning and partial academic credit towards tertiary education (e.g. at a University) as credit. However, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional definition of higher education.
Up until the end of the twentieth-century vocational education focused on specific trades such as those of automobile or welder and it was therefore associated with the activities of lower social classes. As a consequence, it carries some social stigma. Vocational education is related to the age-old apprenticeship system of learning.
Labor Market’s Idea:
The labour market becomes more specialized and economies demand higher levels of skill, governments and businesses are increasingly investigating the future of vocational education through publicly funded training organizations and subsidized apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives business. At the post-secondary level vocational education is typically provided by an institute of technology, or by a local community college. Vocational education has diversified over the 20th century and now exists in industries such as retail, tourism, information technology funeral services and cosmetics as well as in the traditional crafts and cottage industry.
VET (Vocational Education Training), Internationally Australia:
In Australia, vocational education and training is mostly post-secondary and provided through the Vocational Education and Training (VET) system by registered training, organizations. This system encompasses both public, TAFE and private providers in a national training framework and industry training package which define the assessment standards for the different vocational education. Australia’s apprenticeship system includes both traditional apprenticeships in traditional trades and traineeships in other more service-oriented occupations. Both involve a legal contract between the employer and the apprentice and a combination of school-based and workplace training. Apprenticeships typically last three to four years, traineeships only one to two years. Apprentices and trainees receive a wage that increases as they progress.
A crucial feature of the training package which accounts for about 60% of publicly-funded training and almost all apprenticeship is that the content of the vocational qualifications is theoretically defined by industry and not by government or training providers. A training package is owned by one of 11 industry skills councils that are responsible for developing and reviewing the qualifications. The national centre for vocational education research is a not for profit company owned by federal, state and territory ministers responsible for training. It is responsible for collecting managing, analysing, evaluating and communicating research and statistics about vocational educational training.
In Finland, vocational education belongs to secondary education. After nine-year comprehensive schools, almost all students choose to go either to high school which is an institution preparing students for tertiary education or to vocational school. Both forms of secondary education last years and give a formal qualification to enter university i.e. finish polytechnics. In certain fields (e.g. the police school, air traffic control, personal training) the entrance requirements of vocational school include completion thus causing the students to complete their secondary education twice.
The education in vocational school is free and the students from low-income families are eligible for a state student grant. The curriculum of the primarily vocational and academic part of the curriculum is adapted to the needs of the given course. The vocation schools are mainly maintained by municipalities. After completing secondary education one can enter higher vocational schools or universities. The education in such cases lasts for usually 3 to 4 years.
German Language Areas:
Vocational education is an important part of the education systems in Austria, Germany and Switzerland, French and Italian speaking serfs of the and the one element of the German model. For example, in Germany, a law was passed in 1969 which regulated and unified the vocational training system and codified the shared responsibilities of the state, the unions, associations and chambers of trade and industry.
The system is very popular in modem Germany in 2001, two-thirds of young people aged under 22 began an apprenticeship, and 78% of them completed it, meaning that approximately 51% of all young people under 22 have completed apprenticeship in 2003; in 2004 the government signed a pledge with industrial unions that all companies except very small one must take on apprentices. The vocational education systems in other German-speaking countries are very similar to the German system and a vocational qualification from one country is generally also recognized in the other states within this area.
The first Trades school” in the UK was Stanley technical trades School which was designed, built and set up by William Stanley. The initial idea was thought of in 1901, and the school opened in 1907.
The system of vocational education in the UK initially developed independently of the state, with bodies such as R.S.A and City and Guilds setting examinations for technical subjects. The Education Act 1944 made a provision for a tripartite system of grammar school, Secondary technical school and secondary modern schools.
Japanese vocational schools are known as senmon gakk. They are part of Japan’s higher education system. They are two-year schools that many students study at after finishing high school (although it is not always required that students graduate from high school) some have a wide range of majors, others only a few majors, some examples are computer technology, fashion and English.
Vocational training in India is provided on a full time as well as part-time basis. Full-time programmes are generally offered through I.T.I.S industrial training institutes. The model agency for grant the recognition toto the IT.Ls is NCVT which is under the Mia (authoritative organization) of labour, Govt. of India, part-time programmes are offered through state technical education boards or universities who also offer full-time courses.
Vocational training has been successful in India only in industrial training institutes and that too in engineering trades. There are many private institutes in India that offer courses in vocational training and finishing, but most of them have not been recognized by the government. India is the pioneer in vocational training in Film, Television and information technology. The government also offered vocational diplomas in various trades.
Bangladesh Vocational Education System:
Manila, Philippines- The Asian Development Bank (ADP) is helping thousands of unemployed and underemployed Bangladesh adults attain better wages and complement prospects by improving the country’s technical systems and technical skills.
APP has approved a $50 million loan for the ministry of education of Bangladesh to make its technical and vocational education and training programmes market-oriented short-term, and relevant, especially for the poor who were not able to finish the eighth grade.
Currently, the TVET system and the needs of the employment sectors are mismatched, as the practical component of the curriculum is not effectively taught, the majority of the teachers lack training and practical skills and have no industrial experience, the TVET institutions have poorly equipped workshop lack teaching and training materials and adequate classrooms and workshops.
Additionally, the current formal system excludes people who have not completed the eighth grade Through the project assistance young people who have not completed the eighth grade will be given access to training programmes, and the training workshops will not be held in selected poor communities. The project plans to train about 68, 200 people over the five years of implementation.
The need for vocational education in any country is a blessing. So, the developing and the developed countries are giving much emphasis on it. They have developed their education quality by dint of vocational education. As flourished countries have got many benefits from it, under developing country like Bangladesh has reshaped their education policy to get the maximum benefit from it.