Quality of Education: How to Ensure it in Bangladesh ( in Bengali শিক্ষার মান : কীভাবে বাংলাদেশে এটি নিশ্চিত করা যায় ) is a common topic in many competitive exams in Bangladesh. Today we will create a sample or essay for students. We suggest not memorising the essay but rather taking an idea and writing the essay later on by own language and style.
Quality of Education: How to Ensure it in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with about 160 million people within an area of 1,47,570 square kilometres. Her vast population is one of the major resources. But the problem lies in transforming the potential people into a productive force and ensuring a dynamic environment for social, economic and political development. Though the literacy rate is officially said to be 66% according to a private survey the rate is only 53.7%. Education, therefore, has been recognized as a priority sector by all governments since her independence.
The education system in Bangladesh is characterised by the co-existence of three separate streams. The mainstream happens to be a vernacular based secular education carried over the colonial past. There also exists a separate system of religious education. Finally, based on the use of English as the medium of instruction, another stream of education modelled after the British system has rapidly grown in metropolitan cities in Bangladesh.
Present Education System in Bangladesh:
The present education system of Bangladesh may be broadly divided into three major stages, such as-Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education. Primary level institutions impart primary education basically, Junior secondary, secondary and higher secondary level institutions impart secondary education. Degree pass, degree honours, masters and other higher-level institutions or equivalent sections of other related institutions impart tertiary education.
The education system is operationally categorized into two streams; Primary education (Grade I-V) managed by the ministry of primary and mass education and the primary terminal examinations and ibtedayi terminal examination have been started. The government introduced the public examination for class V students in 2009. Only students of general schools sat for the exams last year. But this year (2010) the madrasah students are also taking the examination.
Another grade (V-VIII) Junior School Certificate (JSC) and Junior Dhakil Certificate (JDC) examination for class VIII students held across the country in the first week of November replacing the previous annual and junior scholarship exams. This examination was held under eight general education boards and madrasah board under the same question paper across the country with the participation of 19 lakh examinees.
It was decided that students will be admitted to class IX on the basis of the result of this examination and no separate examination will be held for admission in class IX.
During college admission, the results of JSC and equivalent along with the result of the SSC examination will be badly needed to justify their merit.
And, the post-primary stream of education is further classified into four types in terms of curriculum general education, madrasah education, technical vocational education and professional education.
1. General Education
(a) Primary Education:
The first level of education is comprised of 5 years of formal schooling (.class/grades 1-V). Education, at this stage, normally begins at 6+ years of age up 11 years. Primary education is generally imparted in primary schools. Nevertheless, other types of institutions like Kindergartens and junior sections attached to English Medium Schools are also imparting it.
(b) Secondary Education:
The secondary level of education is comprised of 7 (3+2+ 2) years of formal schooling. The first three years (grades VI-VIII) is referred to us junior secondary while the last two years (grades XI-XII) is called higher secondary.
There is diversification of courses after three years of schooling in the junior secondary level. Vocational and technical courses are offered in vocational and trade institutions schools. Moreover, there are high schools where SSC (Vocational) courses have been introduced. In secondary education, there are three streams of courses as Humanities, Science and Business Education, which started from class IX, where the students are free to choose their courses of education.
The academic programme terminates at the end of class X when students are to appear at the public examination called S.S.C (Secondary School Certificates). The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) conducts the SSC examination.
Secondary education is designed to prepare the students to enter the higher secondary stage. The course is of two-year duration (XI-XII) which is being offered by intermediate section of degree or masters colleges.
(c) Tertiary Education
The third stage of education is comprised of 2-6 years of formal schooling. The minimum requirement for admission to higher education is the Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC). HSC holders are qualified to enrol in 3-year degree pass courses while for honours, they may enrol in 4-year bachelors’ degree honour courses in degree-level colleges or in the Universities.
After successful completion of a pass/honours bachelors’ degree course, master’s degree courses are of one year for honours bachelor degree holders and 2 years for pass bachelor degree holders. For those aspiring to take up M. Phill and Ph. D courses in selected disciplines or areas of specialization, the duration is of 2 years for M. Phill and 3-4 years for Ph. D after completing master’s degree. Higher education is being offered in the universities and post HSC level colleges and institutes of diversified studies in professional, technical and other special types of education.
There are 126 universities in Bangladesh. Out of these, 37 universities are in the public sector while the other 92 are in private sector universities. Out of 37 public sector universities, 35 universities provide regular classroom instruction facilities and services. Bangladesh Open University (BOU) conducts non-campus distance education programmes, especially in teacher education and offers Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Master of Education (M.Ed) degrees.
Bangladesh National University mainly functions as an affiliating university for degree and postgraduate degree level education at different colleges and institutions in different fields of study. After successful completion of the special courses, it conducts final examinations and awards degrees, diplomas and certificates to successful candidates. The degrees are B.A, BSS, BSc, BBS (pass and honours) MA, MSc, MSS, MBS and MFA. Moreover, this University also offers LLB and other degrees. Bangladesh National University offers part-time training to university teachers.
2. Madrasha Education:
The old scheme of madrasah education was introduced in 1870 with the establishment of Calcatta Madrasha. In madrassa education, one can leam Islamic religions as complementary to each other in the system of education. The madrasah education system has been continuing with some modifications according to the demand of the time, and many madrasahs grew up in this sub-continent.
(a) Primary Level or Ebtedayee Education:
This is equivalent to the primary level of general education. The first level of madrasah education consists of 5 years of schooling (grades I-V). Ebtedayee education is imparted in independent “Ebtedayee Madrashas” and Ebtedyace sections of Dhakil, Alim, Fazil and Kamil madrasas. It is also imparted in some Quami-Kharizi madrassas.
(b) Secondary Level:
The secondary level of madrasah education consists of 7 (5+2) years of formal schooling. There is diversification of courses after three years of schooling in secondary level of education from grade XI Alim stages. There is a stream of Courses such as humanities, science and business education, where students are free to choose their courses of study. Most of these madrasahs at this level provide co-education. However, there are some single-gender madrasahs in this level of madrasah education.
(e) Tertiary Level:
The Bangladesh Madrasha Education Board has the following functions as regards madrasah education: grant affiliation to different levels of madrasah from Ebtedayee to Kamil’s; prescribes syllabus and curriculum; conducts public examinations (Dhakil to Kamil) and Ebtedayee terminal examination and JDC. (Junior Dhakil Examination). Besides in the public system of madrasah education, there are a good number of private madrasah for the Muslim students, namely: Hafizia, Qiratia, Quami and Nizamiah.
3. Technical and Vocational Level:
The students whose interests are not strictly academic may find technical-vocational programmes more interesting more valuable for their future. Govt. tries to ensure that the course curriulum should be relevant to students, interest and aspiration while at the same time it should address the needs of the job market.
(a) Primary Level:
There is no technical-vocational institution in primary level education. Ebtedayee in the first level (primary level) of madrasah education has no scope for technical-vocational education.
(b) Secondary Level:
Vocational courses start from the secondary level. The certificate courses prepare skilled workers in different vocations starting ninth grade after completion of three years of schooling in secondary school. Recently 2 years duration vocational courses have been introduced at the higher secondary level in government-managed vocational training institutes.
Diploma courses prepare the Diploma Engineers at the polytechnic institutes. There is a technical education board called Bangladesh Technical Education Board (BTEB). It conducts examinations of the students completing different courses in different vocational and technical education and awards certificates to the successful candidates.
Above all, the government of Bangladesh gives emphasis on the quality of education. The primary and Ebtedayee examinations had been started to standardise the education system. Junior School Certificate (JSC) and Junior Dhakil Certificate (JDC) (grade VI-VIII) have been started this year. And, every government is sympathetic towards implementing better education policy and a large portion of the budget is allocated to education.